Python has become one of the most widely popular languages for automation testing thanks to its versatility and a large number of open-source libraries available for it. When it comes to testing web applications, one of the most widely used tools is Selenium, a popular open-source testing framework for web applications.
Through this article, we will discuss the top 8 Python libraries that can be used for Selenium automation testing. But before we dive into the list, let’s talk about the importance of using a cloud-based testing platform like LambdaTest for your Selenium automation testing needs.
LambdaTest provides a secure, reliable, and scalable cloud infrastructure for running Selenium automation tests on a wide range of browser and operating system combinations. With LambdaTest, you can save time and money by running tests in parallel and quickly identifying and fixing issues before they affect your users. Plus, with its seamless integration with popular testing frameworks and CI/CD tools, you can easily incorporate LambdaTest into your existing testing workflows.
What is Selenium Automation Testing?
Selenium Automation Testing is a technique of automating web applications’ testing using the Selenium framework, which simulates user interactions with the web application. It is used widely in the software industry to automate repetitive and time-consuming manual testing tasks, improve test accuracy and coverage, and increase productivity.
Selenium automation testing can be performed using various programming languages such as Python, Java, Ruby, and C#. It helps software testers to validate web application functionalities and ensure that the web application is working as expected.
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What are Python Libraries?
Python libraries are collections of pre-written code that provide a set of functionalities and tools to perform specific tasks. These libraries can be easily imported and used in your own Python projects, saving you time and effort in writing code from scratch. Python libraries are designed to be flexible and customizable, so you can use them to build a wide variety of applications and solve different problems.
Why are Python Libraries Useful for Selenium Automation Testing?
Python libraries are useful for Selenium automation testing because they provide a set of pre-built functions and methods that can be used to write automated test scripts quickly and efficiently. These libraries eliminate the need for developers to write everything from scratch and help to reduce the amount of code required for testing.
Python libraries can also be used to extend the functionality of Selenium by providing additional features, such as handling authentication, logging, and reporting. They can also help to improve the readability and maintainability of the test code, making it easier to modify and update as required.
Furthermore, Python has a large community of developers constantly contributing to the development of new libraries and tools. This means that there is a vast range of Python libraries available for Selenium automation testing, covering a variety of use cases and requirements.
Top 8 Python Libraries for Selenium Automation Testing
Selenium WebDriver is the official Python library for Selenium, which is an open-source framework used for automating web browsers’ interactions. Selenium WebDriver supports multiple browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Microsoft Edge. This feature allows developers to write tests that can run on different browsers without having to change the code.
One of the key advantages of Selenium WebDriver is its compatibility with different programming languages, including Python. The library provides an intuitive API that is easy to use, making it a popular choice for both beginners and experienced developers. It also provides a wide range of tools and features that enable developers to write reliable and efficient tests that can simulate user interactions with web applications.
PyAutoGUI is a cross-platform GUI automation Python library and is a popular choice for automating desktop applications because of its cross-platform compatibility. It supports multiple platforms, including Windows, macOS, and Linux, allowing developers to write tests that can run on different operating systems without having to change the code. This feature is essential in today’s world of cross-platform applications, where users access applications from different devices and operating systems.
PyAutoGUI also provides a comprehensive set of features for automating desktop applications, including mouse control, keyboard control, and image recognition. It can, in fact, automate web browser interactions using Selenium WebDriver, making it a powerful tool for testing web applications.
Behave is a popular BDD (Behavior Driven Development) framework for Python that allows developers to write tests in a natural language format. It uses the Gherkin language to describe test scenarios in a structured and readable format, making it easy for non-technical stakeholders to understand the tests.
One of the key advantages of Behave is its extensibility. Developers can define custom step definitions and hooks to perform actions before and after scenarios and steps. This feature allows developers to write tests that are tailored to their specific needs and requirements.
Behave also provides a range of advanced features, including parallel test execution, test reports, and tagging. These features make it a powerful tool for testing complex web applications and ensuring their functionality and compatibility.
PyTest testing framework for Python provides a comprehensive set of features for writing and running tests. It is an open-source and cross-platform testing framework that supports multiple testing paradigms, including functional, unit, and integration testing. PyTest can also be used for Selenium automation testing.
One of the biggest benefits of PyTest is its simplicity and ease of use. The framework provides a simple and intuitive API that is easy to learn and use, making it a popular choice for beginners and experienced developers alike. It also provides a range of tools and features that enable developers to write reliable and efficient tests that can simulate user interactions with web applications.
PyTest even provides a range of advanced features, such as test fixtures, that make it easy to set up and tear down test environments, test parametrization, which enables developers to test multiple scenarios with a single test case, and test discovery, which automates the process of finding and running test cases. These features make PyTest a powerful tool for testing complex web applications and ensuring their functionality and compatibility.
Robot Framework is an open-source automation framework that can be used for both test automation and robotic process automation (RPA). The tool is supported by the Robot Framework Foundation and has been widely adopted by leading companies for their software development needs.
The framework has a rich ecosystem of tools and libraries that are developed as separate projects. This makes it easier for developers to access pre-built libraries for specific tasks rather than having to develop everything from scratch.
Robot Framework, in fact, is a highly flexible and customizable open-source automation framework that allows for a wide range of use cases, including Acceptance Testing, Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD), and Robotic Process Automation (RPA). The framework’s primary key feature is its use of a keyword-driven testing approach, which makes it easy for non-technical stakeholders to understand and participate in the testing process.
PyUnit is a unit testing framework that provides a set of tools for writing and executing unit tests in Python. It integrates well with Selenium WebDriver and can be used for testing web applications.
PyUnit supports test cases, test suites, test runner and fixtures for automated code testing. Fixtures are used to set up and tear down test environments, while test cases represent individual tests that verify specific behaviour in the web application. Test suites are used to group related test cases together, and the test runner executes the tests and provides an output on the test results.
Splinter is a Python library that provides an easy-to-use API for automating web browser interactions. It supports multiple browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, and Safari, and provides a simple and intuitive API for simulating user interactions and validating web application behaviour.
Splinter is built on top of Selenium WebDriver and adds an extra layer of abstraction, making it easier for developers to write Selenium tests. Splinter provides a range of features, including support for form filling, clicking, and navigating through web pages, and it supports a range of selectors, including CSS selectors and XPath expressions.
Here are some of the key features and benefits of Splinter:
Comprehensive Element Selection: Splinter allows us to find different elements in any Web page by their Xpath, CSS, tag value, name, ID, text, or value. In case we need more accurate control of the Web page or we need to do something more, such as interacting with old ‘frameset’ tags, Splinter even exposes the Web driver that allows us to use the low-level methods used for interacting with that tag.
Multiple Web Automation Back-Ends: Splinter supports multiple Web automation back-ends. We can use the same set of test codes for doing browser-based testing with Selenium as its back-end and for ‘headless’ testing with zope.testbrowser as its back-end.
Iframe Support: Splinter has extensive support for using iframes and interacts with them by just passing the iframe’s name, ID, or index value. There is also Chrome support for various alerts and prompts in the Splinter 0.4 version.
SeleniumBase is a popular Python library used in testing, functional testing, and Selenium applications. It is an open-source tool that provides a wide range of features for browser automation and testing using Selenium/WebDriver APIs.
One of the main benefits of SeleniumBase is its quality. It has zero reported bugs and code smells, ensuring reliable and efficient automation and testing. Moreover, SeleniumBase is secure, with no reported vulnerabilities in either its code or dependent libraries. The code analysis shows no unresolved vulnerabilities or security hotspots, giving developers confidence in using the library.
SeleniumBase is also highly reusable, with releases available to install and integrate. It has a deployable package available in npm, and a build file is available to build the component from source. Although installation instructions are not available, examples and code snippets are available, making it easy to get started.
Python offers a range of powerful and flexible libraries for Selenium automation testing. These libraries simplify the task of test automation and enable testers to execute their test scripts faster and more efficiently. The libraries discussed in this article include Selenium WebDriver, PyAutoGUI, Behave, PyTest, PyUnit, Splinter, SeleniumBase, and Robot Framework, all of which have unique features and capabilities that make them suitable for different testing scenarios.
The future of Python libraries for Selenium automation testing is promising as more developers continue to work on these libraries to improve their features and capabilities. In the coming years, we can see even more powerful libraries that will make it even easier for testers to write and run Selenium test scripts.
Additionally, with the increasing popularity of cloud-based testing services like LambdaTest, testers can expect to access more cloud-based testing infrastructure that supports Python libraries for Selenium automation testing. Overall, the future looks bright for Python and Selenium automation testing, with new developments on the horizon that promise to make the task of test automation faster, more efficient, and more effective than ever before.